martes, 31 de octubre de 2017

Martin Luther EXPOSED!


Protestantism originated with Martin Luther (1483-1546), an ex-Catholic.  Even though Protestants would contend that they follow “true biblical Christianity,” and not a man, they are inclined to defend Martin Luther.  This is because Martin Luther was the first identifiable spokesman for their version of “Christianity.”  Prior to his separation from the Catholic Church in 1520, there was no public defender of what we now know to be Protestantism, the core doctrines of which are justification by faith alone and Scripture alone.  

Even though Luther is the central figure in the history of Protestantism, few Protestants know much about him, or about how he came upon his beliefs.  I invite the reader to consider the following facts.


Martin Luther was born in 1483 and baptized as a Catholic the next day.  He entered an Augustinian Catholic friary in 1505, and was ordained a Catholic priest in 1507.  Therefore, as a young professing Catholic priest, Protestantism was unknown to Martin Luther and indeed to the rest of the Christian world.   

On Oct. 31, 1517, Martin Luther tacked his famous 95 Theses on the church door in Wittenberg, Germany.  Most Protestants today cite this date as the beginning of the Protestant “reformation.”  They think this represented Luther’s public stand for the Protestant faith, for “true and biblical Christianity.”  What they don’t know is that Martin Luther’s famous 95 Theses acknowledged the office of the pope more than 20 times.  At the time of the posting of the Theses – and indeed before it and for some time afterwards – Luther claimed to be a Catholic priest and monk.  In his 95 Theses, Luther clearly acknowledges the office of the Pope as instituted by Christ, although he detracts from its dignity and powers in the matter of Indulgences.  

The formal title for his 95 Theses is the Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, Oct. 31, 1517.  In addition to acknowledging the pope, numbers 25-29 of the Theses acknowledge Purgatory.  Luther acknowledges the existence of Purgatory, although he departs from Catholic teaching in what he says about it.  Luther also declares his belief in Indulgences, although he contradicts traditional Catholic doctrine on the issue.  The following is typical of the contradictions exhibited by Luther.  

#71 of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses, Oct. 31, 1517: “Let him be anathema and accursed who denies the apostolic character of the indulgences.”

The point here is that even on Oct. 31, 1517, the Protestant “faith” was still unknown to Martin Luther and indeed to the rest of the Christian world.  There was no statement about justification by faith alone or Scripture alone; there was as yet no repudiation of the papal office or many other Catholic dogmas which Protestants today would reject.  What you have, at this point, is a confused and convoluted priest who, while claiming to be Catholic, was clearly falling from the traditional Catholic faith into his own wild version of it (especially with regard to Indulgences).  He was no Protestant.  Even at this point, the socalled biblical “faith” was unknown to its eventual founder.  

In 1518, Luther published a Sermon on Indulgences and Grace, in which he attacked the traditional way of dividing Penance into contrition, confession and satisfaction (Dr. Ludwig Pastor, History of the Popes, Vol. 7, pp. 355-356).  Luther claimed it was not found in Holy Scripture.  This, along with Luther’s contradiction of traditional Catholic teaching on Indulgences, prompted the Church to summon him to Rome for an investigation.  (It should be noted that there were indeed some abuses by Church men on Indulgences.  Such abuses represented a departure from Catholic teaching on the matter.  Indulgences cannot be
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bought.  Occasional abuses in this area – which were committed by a few Church men of a world-wide Church – in no way justify repudiating the traditional teaching.  This teaching on Indulgences is rooted in the treasury of the merits of Jesus Christ and the saints, and the power of the keys given to St. Peter.  According to Catholic teaching, Indulgences are given for certain specified good works or pious actions (such as prayers, etc.).  They remove only the temporal punishment of already forgiven sins.  They are not, as Protestants would suggest, a means to buy one’s way into Heaven.) 

At the beginning of July 1518, Luther is presented with an official summons to appear in Rome and give an accounting of his doctrines.  While maintaining his new (and heretical) views on Indulgences and Penance, Luther claims “that the Roman Church has always maintained the true faith, and that it is necessary for all Christians to be in unity of faith with her.” (Dr. Ludwig Pastor, History of the Popes, Vol. 7, p. 366.)  That means that, even after having been summoned to Rome to answer for his new ideas, Luther professes that the Roman Church (the Roman Catholic Church) has the true faith.  At this point, Luther is undoubtedly drifting into his own personalized view of “Christianity”; but he is still no Protestant, as his statement about the Roman Church demonstrates.  The socalled pure, simple and “biblical faith” was still unknown to its eventual founder in July of 1518.

As Luther’s influence spread, and his commitment to new ideas hardened, the actions against him increased.  Pope Leo X dispatched the learned Cardinal Cajetan to handle the case.  Cajetan was to examine the situation and, if possible, get through to Luther.  This occurred in the fall of 1518, but Luther remained obstinate.  Despite his commitment to his new ideas, Luther declared the following at one of these interviews: “The notary read out a declaration on behalf of Luther, that as far as he could remember he [Luther] had never taught anything against Holy Scripture, the doctrines of the Church, the Papal decretals [decrees of the popes], or sound reason.  But as he was a man subject to error, he submitted himself to the decisions of the Holy Church and to all who knew better than he did.” (Dr. Ludwig Pastor, History of the Popes, Vol. 7, p. 373.)  

Once again, we see that Luther claims fidelity to papal teaching and to all of Catholic doctrine.  He also appeals specifically to the pope, and expresses his willingness to retract if the pope decided against him (Ibid., pp. 375, 377).  The so-called “biblical faith” (Protestantism) was still unknown to its eventual founder.

Not long after his meetings with Cajetan in November of 1518, Luther’s views underwent another significant development.  He came to the conclusion that the pope, to whose decrees he had just claimed submission, is the antichrist.  He writes: “I send you my trifling work that you may see whether I am not right in supposing that, according to Paul, the real Antichrist holds sway over the Roman court.” (De Wette, I., 192; Enders I., 317; Pastor, Vol. 7, pp. 378-379.)  Numerous utterances from this time show that Luther had “fully formulated his proposition that the pope was antichrist.” 

Yet, at this very time that he was calling the pope “the Antichrist,” Luther appealed to a general council from the pope (Luther’s works, Weimar ed., II., 36 seq.).  In other words, Luther considered the decisions of general councils to be definitive and authoritative.  This of course contradicts one of the pillars of Protestantism: Scripture alone.  

Therefore, even at the point that Luther had firmly set his face against the Papacy as “the Antichrist,” he still hadn’t discovered Protestantism.  The so-called “biblical faith” was still unknown to its eventual founder.  One should consider this fact deeply; for it demonstrates that whenever Luther did come up with Protestantism, it was nothing more than the creation of a confused mind.

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The true faith of Jesus Christ is a deposit.  It does not fall out of the sky to a man who lives 15 centuries after Christ.  It was revealed by Jesus Christ to His Apostles 2000 years ago, and it was passed on by the Apostles to the Church.

Jude 1:3- “… it was needful for me to write unto you, and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.”

The true faith thus has a historical link to the apostolic Church; and it can be shown to have been believed by those who came before in the Church.  It is passed on from generation to generation.  Martin Luther grew up with the Catholic faith.  Protestantism was unknown to him as a child; it was unknown to him as a priest; it was unknown to him when he posted his 95 Theses, and even when he first called the pope the Antichrist and was appealing to a general council.  At some point, indeed, Martin Luther came up with Protestantism, and his conclusions had no link with his predecessors or even with what he had said or believed before.  They were truly the inventions and “discoveries” of a man, Martin Luther.  

Protestants have thus submitted themselves to a system which Martin Luther came up with among the rest of his contradictory and ever-changing views.  These “discoveries” include the idea that man is justified by faith alone, which word for word contradicts the teaching of the Bible (James 2:24) – a contradiction so blatant that Luther felt compelled to criticize the book of James because it contradicted him.  In fact, Luther wanted to throw James out of the Bible and into the stove (i.e., the fire), until his friends persuaded him that such a move would be too radical.  


Martin Luther, Preface to the New Testament, 1522: “Therefore St. James’ epistle is really an epistle of straw, compared to these others, for it has nothing of the nature of the gospel about it.”

Here we see the apostate priest, Martin Luther, denigrating the Book of James because it contradicts his new idea of justification by faith alone.

Martin Luther, The Licentiate Examination of Heinrich Schmedenstede, July 7, 1542: “That epistle of James gives us much trouble, for the papists embrace it alone and leave out all the rest.  Up to this point I have been accustomed just to deal with and interpret it according to the sense of the rest of the Scriptures.  For you will judge that none of it must be set forth contrary to manifest Holy Scripture.  Accordingly, if they will not admit my interpretations, then I shall make rubble also of it.  I almost feel like throwing Jimmy into the stove, as the priest in Kalenberg did.”

Martin Luther even added the word “alone” to Romans 3:28 in his German translation of the Bible.  He made it say “faith alone,” when that is not in the text or what it means.


Martin Luther also said that a man could commit fornication and murder 1000 times a day and would not lose his justification.  He said this to express his doctrine of justification by faith alone: that is, no matter how much a person sins, he is still saved as long as he believes (by faith alone).  In the same context, he declared: “be a sinner and sin boldly.” 
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The authenticity of these quotes is not disputed, but openly admitted by Protestant defenders of Luther.

Martin Luther, Letter to Melanchthon, August 1, 1521: “If you are a preacher of grace, then preach a true and not a fictitious grace; if grace is true, you must bear a true and not a fictitious sin.  God does not save people who are only fictitious sinners.  Be a sinner and sin boldly, but believe and rejoice in Christ even more boldly, for he is victorious over sin, death, and the world.  As long as we are here [in this world] we have to sin.  This life is not the dwelling place of righteousness, but, as Peter says, we look for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells.  It is enough that by the riches of God’s glory we have come to know the Lamb that takes away the sin of the world.  No sin will separate us from the Lamb, even though we commit fornication and murder a thousand times a day.  Do you think that the purchase price that was paid for the redemption of our sins by so great a Lamb is too small?  Pray boldly—you too are a mighty sinner.”

As mentioned previously, the true faith is a deposit.  It doesn’t fall out of the sky for the first time to a man who lives 1500 years after Christ, and it doesn’t come from the abyss below – as Martin Luther’s teachings on justification, fornication and murder do.


Martin Luther also had a preoccupation with the Devil, with the bathroom, and with matters one can only call disgusting.  Even Protestant scholars have noted that Luther’s fascination with crude subjects is disquieting.  He admittedly had much interaction with the Devil.  “These [demons] would haunt the imagination of Martin Luther who had visions, which he believed to be actual physical occurrences, of the devil hurling [excrement] at him and his hurling it back.  Indeed, in one of his many anal combats with the devil – in which Luther would challenge the devil to ‘lick’ his posterior – Luther thought the best tactic might be to ‘throw him into my anus, where he belongs.’” (H.W. Crocker, Triumph, Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2001, p. 237.)  After he had come to his position against the Papacy, Luther called the “Papal decretals the Devil’s excretals.”  He also said that the pope and cardinals should be killed, and that he and his supporters should wash their “hands in their blood.” (Pastor, History of the Popes, Vol. 7, p. 393.)

Luther claims that he came up with justification by faith alone while on the toilet.  He claims that it came as “knowledge the Holy Spirit gave me on the privy in the tower.” (Quoted in William Manchester, A World Lit only By Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance Little Brown & Co., 1993, p. 140.)  In fact, Luther’s idea that people need to commit real and “honest” sins seems to have originated from a conversation with the Devil.  This is from Luther’s Table Talk.

"[Luther said:] When I awoke last night, the Devil came and wanted to debate with me; he rebuked and reproached me, arguing that I was a sinner.  To this I replied: Tell me something new, Devil!  I already know that perfectly well; I have committed many a solid and real sin.  Indeed there must be good honest sins - not fabricated and invented ones - for God to forgive for God's beloved Son's sake, who took all of my sins upon Him so that now the sins I have committed are no longer mine but belong to Christ.  This wonderful gift of God I am not prepared to deny, but want to acknowledge and confess."

With these facts in mind, it should be quite clear how those who followed Luther’s eventual conclusions (the core of which are faith alone and Scripture alone) are simply following the machinations, inventions and discoveries of a man.  They are following the inventions of a man who was guided and used by the Devil to create a false version of “Christianity” which would lead countless people astray.


2 Peter 2:1- “But there were also false prophets among the people, even as there shall be among you lying teachers, who shall bring in sects of perdition, and deny the Lord who bought them: bringing upon themselves swift destruction.”

Following Martin Luther’s excommunication from the Catholic Church in 1520, which marked the beginning of the Protestant movement, over 20,000 different denominations have been created in about 500 years.  In 1980, David A. Barrett’s World Christian Encyclopedia (Oxford University Press) gave the number of different denominations as 20,780.  He projected that there would be 22,190 denominations by 1985.

This would mean that there are approximately 25,000 (or possibly 30,000) different denominations today.  Even if, for the sake of argument, one were to take a conservative estimate, and give the number as only 15,000 different denominations, this equates to more than one new sect having been created every two weeks.

When we consider the fact that the original founders of Protestantism didn’t even agree with each other on major points of doctrine, such denominational chaos shouldn’t be a surprise.  Protestantism is man-made religion, in which each person ultimately determines for himself what he thinks the Bible teaches.  Martin Luther (the initiator of Protestantism) condemned the doctrinal views of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, two other leading Protestant figures.  They all claimed to follow the Bible.

Basically all of these thousands of non-Catholic sects purport to be Christian and claim to follow the Bible, even though they disagree with each other on crucial doctrinal matters, such as: the precise nature of justification; whether human works and sins are a part of salvation; whether men have free will; predestination; whether infants need baptism for salvation; what Communion is; whether it’s necessary to confess to the Lord; which books of the New Testament apply to us today; the structure of the Church’s hierarchy; the role of bishops and ministers; the Sabbath; the role of women in church; etc. ad nauseam.  Most of these groups even claim that the individual “Christian” will be led by the Holy Spirit when privately reading the Bible.  The disunity of these sects constitutes an irrefutable proof that their doctrine is not of the Spirit of Truth; and that their principle of operation (i.e.., Scripture alone apart from the Church and Tradition) is not the doctrine of the Bible and the Apostles. 

Ephesians 4:4-5- “One body and one Spirit; as you are called in one hope of your calling.  One Lord, one faith, one baptism.”


If you are a Lutheran, your religion was founded by Martin Luther, an ex-monk of the Catholic Church, in approximately 1520.

If you belong to the Church of England, your religion was founded by King Henry VIII (an ex-Catholic) in the year 1534.  Henry VIII decided to create his own church when Pope Clement VII would not grant him a divorce with the right to remarry.

If you are a Mennonite, Menno Simons (an ex-Catholic) created your religion in 1536.

If you are a Presbyterian, John Knox (an ex-Catholic) founded your sect in Scotland in the year 1560.

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If you are a Congregationalist, your religion began with Robert Brown in Holland in 1582.

If you are a Baptist, John Smyth created your sect in Amsterdam in 1605.

If you are of the Dutch Reformed church, your church began with Michaelis Jones in New York in 1628.

If you are a Quaker, your religion began with George Fox in 1652.

If you are a Protestant Episcopalian, Samuel Seabury created your sect in the American colonies in the 17th century, as an offshoot of the Church of England.

If you are Amish, Jacob Amman created your religion in 1693, as an offshoot of the Mennonites.

If you are a Methodist, your religion was launched by John and Charles Wesley in England in 1744.

If you are a Unitarian, Theophilus Lindley founded your sect in London in 1774.

If you are a Mormon (“Latter Day Saints”), your religion comes from Joseph Smith, who revealed it in Palmyra, N.Y. in 1829.

If you are a Seventh Day Adventist, your religion was created by Ellen White in 1860.

If you worship with the Salvation Army, William Booth started your sect in London in 1865.

If you are of the “Jehovah’s Witnesses,” your beliefs came from Charles Taze Russell in 1872.

If you are a “Christian Scientist,” Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy devised your religion in 1879.

If you belong to one of the religious organizations known as “Church of the Nazarene," "Pentecostal Gospel," "Holiness Church," "Pilgrim Holiness Church," “Assemblies of God,” “United Church of Christ,” etc., your religion is one of the thousands of new sects founded by men in the last century.

If you are Catholic, you know that your religion was founded in the year 33 by Jesus Christ, the Son of God, true God and true man; and that this one Church, to which people must belong to be saved, will exist until the end of time.

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十一月一 日
(一) 諸聖人の祝日
(2)-天国とはいかがなる処であるか ー 天国とは苦しみや禍が一つもなく、かえってあらゆる福楽の充ち溢れている処であります。



domingo, 29 de octubre de 2017

Christus Rex (ENGLISH)


Feast celebrated for the first time on December 31, 1925, was instituted in the encyclical letter Quas Primas of Pius IX where its character and meaning is explained.

The celebration of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe, closes the Liturgical Year in which he has meditated on the mystery of his life, his preaching and the proclamation of the Kingdom of God. Pope Pius XI, on December 11, 1925, instituted this solemnity that closes ordinary time. Its objective is to remember the universal sovereignty of Jesus Christ. We confess it supreme Lord of heaven and earth, of the Church and of our souls. During the announcement of the Kingdom, Jesus shows us what it means to us as Salvation, Revelation and Reconciliation before the mortal lie of sin that exists in the world. Jesus answers Pilate when he asks him if indeed he is the King of the Jews: "My Kingdom is not of this world, if my Kingdom were of this world my people would have fought so that it would not be handed over to the Jews, but my Kingdom it is not from here "(Jn 18:36). Jesus is not the King of a world of fear, lies and sin, He is the King of the Kingdom of God that brings and leads us. Christ the King announces the Truth and that Truth is the light that illuminates the loving way that He has traced, with his Way of the Cross, the way to the Kingdom of God. "Yes, as you say, I am King, for this I was born and for this I have come to the world: to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice. "(Jn 18:37) Jesus reveals to us his reconciling mission to announce the truth before the deceitfulness of sin This celebration celebrates Christ as the kind and simple King who as a shepherd guides your pilgrim Church to the Celestial Kingdom and gives you communion with this Kingdom so that you can transform the world in which you are pilgrimage.The possibility of reaching the Kingdom of God was established by Jesus Christ, by leaving us the Holy Spirit who gives us the necessary graces to achieve holiness and transform the world into love, that is the mission that Jesus left to the Church when establishing his Kingdom. It can be thought that only the Kingdom of God will be reached after passing through death, but the truth is that the Kingdom is already installed in the world through the Church that makes the pilgrimage to the Celestial Kingdom. With the work of Jesus Christ, the two realities of the Church - pilgrimage and celestial - are linked in a definitive way, and this way the pilgrimage is strengthened with the prayer of the pilgrims and the grace they receive through the sacraments. "Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice." (Jn 18, 37) All those who meet the Lord, listen to his call to Holiness and embark on that path become members of the Kingdom of God.


Prayer to Christ the King. 
Oh Jesus Christ! I recognize you as the universal King. Everything that has been done has been created for You. Exercise all your rights on me. I renew my promises of Baptism, renouncing Satan, his pomps and his works, and I promise to live as a good Christian. And very particularly I commit myself to make the rights of God and of your Church triumph, according to my means. Divine Heart of Jesus! I offer you my poor actions so that all hearts may recognize your Holy Royalty, and may the reign of your peace be established in the entire Universe. Amen.

Consecration of humanity for the day of Christ the King by Pope Pius XI 
Most sweet Jesus, Redeemer of the human race! Look at us humbly prostrate; you are ours and you want to be, and in order to live more closely united with you, each and every one of us spontaneously consecrated ourselves on this day to your Most Sacred Heart. Many, unfortunately, have never known you; Many, disregarding your commandments, have rejected you. O most benign Jesus, be compassionate to one and the other, and attract them all to your Most Holy Heart. Oh Lord! Be King, not only of the faithful children who have never gone away from You, but also of the prodigals who have abandoned you; make them return soon to the father's house, that they may not perish from hunger and misery. Be King of those who, by seduction of error or by spirit of discord, live apart from You; return them to the port of truth and to the unity of faith so that in a short time a single flock will be formed under one Shepherd. Be King of those who remain still wrapped in the darkness of idolatry; worthy to attract them all in the light of your kingdom. Grant, O Lord, safety and sure liberty to your Church; grant all peoples tranquility in order; make that from one end of the earth to the other the resounding but this voice: Praise be to the divine Heart, cause of our salvation! Songs of honor and glory are sung to Him for ever and ever. Amen.

Christus vincit, Christus regnat, Christus imperat!

To Jesus Christ our Sov'reign King
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martes, 24 de octubre de 2017

St. Raphael Archangel

October 24th, St. Raphael Archangel

Patron of doctors; pharmaceutical; nurses; blind and visually impaired people; people with mental problems; sick; young boys; engagement; travelers; pastors. Protector against diseases, especially sight; mental problems; nightmares.

For I am the Angel Raphael, one of the seven who serve before the Lord. (Tobit 7:15)

St. Raphael is one of the seven spirits who are always before God, and offer Him the incense of their prayer and that of men. "When you prayed," said St Raphael to Tobias, "with tears, and you buried the dead, and you got up from the table in the middle of the meal, and hid the dead in your house by day, and buried them at night, I presented your prayer to the Lord. And because you were accepted by God, temptation was needed to prove you. " Tobias went blind; but "the loss of sight," St. Augustine says, "was an occasion for the venerable old man to receive a visit from a heavenly physician." St. Raphael, whose name means "Medicine of God," was sent by God, like the angel stirring the water of the probationary pool, to heal Tobias. He indicated to the young Tobias the remedy on purpose to return the sight to his father, he looked for a wife for him and he drove away the demon.

"Let us praise with veneration all the princes of the heavenly court, and especially the Archangel Raphael, physician and faithful companion, conqueror of the devil. Oh, Christ, most kind King! Let the enemy do no harm to us with such a guard. " "May the Archangel Raphael, physician of our salvation, assist us from heaven, so that he may heal our infirmities, and lead our hesitant steps to the true life."

Today the Holy Catholic Church celebrates according to the Traditional Calendar the Feast of St. Raphael the Archangel, today forgotten by many. He is the patron of doctors, pharmacists and health professionals, protector of the bride and groom, travelers and those who suffer from diseases, especially in sight, so we must pray that not only those with physical vision problems , but for those who do not want to see the situation of the Church today and how false shepherds pretend to be legitimate. I share a painting from Colonial Cusco in which it is depicted Saint Raphael.

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O Glorious Prince Saint Raphael, sweet torch of eternal palaces, leader of the armies of the Almighty, emissary of the Divinity, organ of His providence, executor of His orders, secretary of His secret, universal resource of all the children of Adam, friend of your devotees, companion of the walkers, master of virtue, protector of chastity, help of the afflicted, physician of the sick, aid of the persecuted, scourge of the demons, rich treasure of the flows of God. Thou art the Holy Angel, one of those seven most noble spirits that surround the Throne of the Most High. Trusting in the great love that you have manifested to men, we implore you humbly defend us from the wiles and temptations of the devil in all the steps and seasons of our life, that distances us from the dangers of the soul and the body by putting a brake on our passions criminals and the enemies who are tyrannizing us, who knock down everywhere, and especially in the Catholic world, the cruel monster of heresies and the unbelief that tries to devour us. We ask thee, too, with all the fervor of our spirit, to make it expand and extend the Holy Gospel, with the practice of morality. That thou assist the shepherds, and grant unity in the truth to the authorities and Christian magistrates. Finally we implore thee in the reaches of the Throne of God, to whom thou so immediately attend, the inestimable gift of grace, so that through it we may one day be your perpetual companions in glory. Amen.

O God, who gave Thy servant Tobias to the holy Archangel Raphael for a companion on the road, grant Thy servants that we may always be protected by his care, and striving with his help. Through Jesus Christ our Lord.

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lunes, 23 de octubre de 2017



今日の聖人 10月24日




miércoles, 18 de octubre de 2017

St. Luke the Evangelist - San Lucas el Evangelista

Luke the Evangelist (Latin: Lūcās, Ancient Greek: Λουκᾶς, Loukãs, Hebrew: לוקא‎‎, Lūqās, Aramaic:ܠܘܩܐ ‏‎‎‎, Lūqā’‎) is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical Gospels. The Early Church Fathers ascribed to him authorship of both the Gospel according to St. Luke and the book of Acts of the Apostles, which would mean St. Luke contributed over a quarter of the text of the New Testament, more than any other author. Prominent figures in early Christianity such as St. Jerome and Eusebius later reaffirmed his authorship, although the fragile evidence of the identity of the author of the works has led to discussion in scholarly circles, both secular and religious.
The New Testament mentions St. Luke briefly a few times, and the Pauline epistle to the Colossians refers to him as a physician (from Greek for 'one who heals'); thus he is thought to have been both a physician and a disciple of St. Paul. Christians since the faith's early years have regarded him as a saint. He is believed to have been a martyr, reportedly as having been hanged from an olive tree, though some believe otherwise.
The Roman Catholic Church venerates him as Saint Luke the Evangelist and as a patron saint of artists, physicians, bachelors, surgeons, students and butchers; his feast day takes place on 18 October.

His life
Many scholars believe that Luke was a Greek physician who lived in the Greek city of Antioch in Ancient Syria, though some other scholars and theologians think Luke was a Hellenic Jew. Bart Koet for instance considered it as widely accepted that the theology of Luke–Acts points to a gentile Christian writing for a gentile audience. Gregory Sterling though, claims that he was either a Hellenistic Jew or a god-fearer.
His earliest notice is in Paul's Epistle to Philemon—Philemon 1:24. He is also mentioned in Colossians 4:14 and 2Timothy 4:11, two works commonly ascribed to Paul.The next earliest account of Luke is in the Anti-Marcionite Prologue to the Gospel of Luke, a document once thought to date to the 2nd century, but which has more recently been dated to the later 4th century. Helmut Koester, however, claims that the following part, the only part preserved in the original Greek, may have been composed in the late 2nd century:
Luke, was born in Antioch, by profession, was a physician. He had become a disciple of the apostle Paul and later followed Paul until his [Paul's] martyrdom. Having served the Lord continuously, unmarried and without children, filled with the Holy Ghost he died at the age of 84 years. (p. 335)

Epiphanius states that Luke was one of the Seventy Apostles (Panarion 51.11), and St. John Chrysostom indicates at one point that the "brother" Paul mentions in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians 8:18 is either Luke or Barnabas.
If one accepts that Luke was in fact the author of the Gospel bearing his name and also the Acts of the Apostles, certain details of his personal life can be reasonably assumed. While he does exclude himself from those who were eyewitnesses to Jesus' ministry, he repeatedly uses the word "we" in describing the Pauline missions in Acts of the Apostles, indicating that he was personally there at those times.
There is similar evidence that Luke resided in Troas, the province which included the ruins of ancient Troy, in that he writes in Acts in the third person about Paul and his travels until they get to Troas, where he switches to the first person plural. The "we" section of Acts continues until the group leaves Philippi, when his writing goes back to the third person. This change happens again when the group returns to Philippi. There are three "we sections" in Acts, all following this rule. Luke never stated, however, that he lived in Troas, and this is the only evidence that he did.

St. Luke as depicted in the head-piece of an Armenian Gospel manuscript from 1609 held at the Bodleian Library.

The composition of the writings, as well as the range of vocabulary used, indicate that the author was an educated man. A quote in the Letter of Paul to the Colossians differentiates between Luke and other colleagues "of the circumcision."
10 My fellow prisoner Aristarchus sends you his greetings, as does Mark, the cousin of Barnabas. 11 Jesus, who is called Justus, also sends greetings. These are the only Jews among my co-workers for the kingdom of God, and they have proved a comfort to me. ... 14 Our dear friend Luke, the doctor, and Demas send greetings. Colossians 4:10–11, 14.
This comment has traditionally caused commentators to conclude that Luke was a Gentile. If this were true, it would make Luke the only writer of the New Testament who can clearly be identified as not being Jewish. However, that is not the only possibility. Although Luke is considered likely to be a Gentile Christian, some scholars believe him to be a Hellenized Jew.  The phrase could just as easily be used to differentiate between those Christians who strictly observed the rituals of Judaism and those who did not.
Luke's presence in Rome with the Apostle Paul near the end of Paul's life was attested by 2 Timothy 4:11: "Only Luke is with me". In the last chapter of the Book of Acts, widely attributed to Luke, we find several accounts in the first person also affirming Luke's presence in Rome including Acts 28:16: "And when we came to Rome..." According to some accounts, Luke also contributed to the authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
Luke died at age 84 in Boeotia, according to a "fairly early and widespread tradition". According to Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos (Ecclesiastical History 14th century AD., Migne P.G. 145, 876) and others, Luke's tomb was located in Thebes, whence his relics were transferred to Constantinople in the year 357.

The authorship of Luke and Acts
The Gospel of Luke does not name its author. The Gospel was not written and does not claim to be written by direct witnesses to the reported events, unlike Acts beginning in the sixteenth chapter.
The earliest manuscript of the Gospel, dated circa AD 200, ascribes the work to Luke; as did Irenaeus, writing circa AD 180, and the Muratorian fragment from AD 170.
The gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles make up a two-volume work which scholars call Luke–Acts. Together they account for 27.5% of the New Testament, the largest contribution by a single author.

As a historian

A medieval Armenian illumination of Luke, by Toros Roslin.

Most scholars understand Luke's works (Luke–Acts) in the tradition of Greek historiography. The preface of The Gospel of Luke drawing on historical investigation identified the work to the readers as belonging to the genre of history. There is some disagreement about how best to treat Luke's writings, with some historians regarding Luke as highly accurate, and others taking a more critical approach.
Based on his accurate description of towns, cities and islands, as well as correctly naming various official titles, archaeologist Sir William Ramsay wrote that "Luke is a historian of the first rank; not merely are his statements of fact trustworthy... [he] should be placed along with the very greatest of historians." Professor of Classics at Auckland University, E.M. Blaiklock, wrote: "For accuracy of detail, and for evocation of atmosphere, Luke stands, in fact, with Thucydides. The Acts of the Apostles is not shoddy product of pious imagining, but a trustworthy record... it was the spadework of archaeology which first revealed the truth." New Testament scholar Colin Hemer has made a number of advancements in understanding the historical nature and accuracy of Luke's writings.

As an artist

Luke the Evangelist painting the first icon of the Virgin Mary.

St. Luke paints the Madonna and the Baby Jesus, by Maarten van Heemskerck

Christian tradition, starting from the 8th century, states that he was the first icon painter. He is said to have painted pictures of the Virgin Mary and Child, in particular the Hodegetria image in Constantinople (now lost). Starting from the 11th century a number of painted images were venerated as his autograph works, including for example, the Black Madonna of Częstochowa and Our Lady of Vladimir. He was also said to have painted Saints Peter and Paul, and to have illustrated a gospel book with a full cycle of miniatures.
Late medieval Guilds of St Luke in the cities of Late Medieval Europe, especially Flanders, or the "Accademia di San Luca" (Academy of Saint Luke) in Rome—imitated in many other European cities during the 16th century—gathered together and protected painters. The tradition that Luke painted icons of Mary and Jesus has been common, particularly in the East. The tradition also has support from the Saint Thomas Christians of India who claim to still have one of the Theotokos icons that Saint Luke painted and which St. Thomas brought to India.


Luke and the Madonna, Altar of the Guild of Saint Luke, Hermen Rode, Lübeck 1484.

In traditional depictions, such as paintings, evangelist portraits and church mosaics, Saint Luke is often accompanied by an ox or bull, usually having wings. Sometimes only the symbol is shown, especially when in a combination of those of all Four Evangelists.

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Lucas el Evangelista (en latín: Lūcās, griego antiguo: Λουκᾶς, Loukãs, hebreo: לוקא, Lūqās, arameo: ܠܘܩܐ, Lūqā ') es uno de los cuatro evangelistas, de los cuatro autores tradicionalmente atribuidos a los Evangelios canónicos. Los Primeros Padres de la Iglesia le atribuyeron la autoría tanto del Evangelio según Lucas como del libro de los Hechos de los Apóstoles, lo que significaría que San Lucas contribuyó con más de un cuarto del texto del Nuevo Testamento, más que cualquier otro autor. Figuras prominentes en el cristianismo primitivo como San Jerónimo y Eusebio reafirmaron más tarde su autoría, aunque la evidencia frágil de la identidad del autor de las obras ha llevado a la discusión en círculos académicos, tanto seculares como religiosos.
El Nuevo Testamento menciona a San Lucas brevemente unas pocas veces, y la epístola paulina a los colosenses se refiere a él como un médico (del griego para 'el que sana'); por lo que se cree que fue a la vez médico y discípulo de San Pablo. Los cristianos desde los primeros años de la fe lo han considerado como un santo. Se cree que fue un mártir, al parecer colgado de un olivo, aunque algunos creen lo contrario. La Iglesia Católica Romana lo venera como San Lucas el Evangelista y como patrón de artistas, médicos, licenciados, cirujanos, estudiantes y carniceros; Su fiesta se lleva a cabo el 18 de octubre.

Su vida 
Muchos eruditos creen que Lucas era un médico griego que vivía en la ciudad griega de Antioquía en la antigua Siria, aunque algunos otros estudiosos y teólogos creen que San Lucas era un judío helénico. Bart Koet, por ejemplo, consideró que era ampliamente aceptado que la teología de Lucas-Hechos apunta a una escritura cristiana gentil para una audiencia gentil. Sin embargo, Gregory Sterling afirma que él era un judío helenístico o un temeroso de Dios. Su primer aviso está en la Epístola de San Pablo a Filemón-Filemón 1:24. También se menciona en Colosenses 4:14 y 2 Timoteo 4:11, dos obras comúnmente atribuidas a San Pablo. El siguiente relato más temprano de Lucas está en el prólogo anti-Marcionita al Evangelio de San Lucas, documento que se pensó hasta la fecha del 2do. siglo, pero que se ha fechado más recientemente en el último siglo IV. Helmut Koester, sin embargo, afirma que la siguiente parte, la única parte conservada en el griego original, pudo haber sido compuesta a fines del siglo II:

Lucas, nació en Antioquía, de profesión, era médico. Se había convertido en un discípulo del apóstol Pablo y luego siguió a Pablo hasta su martirio [ de Pablo]. Habiendo servido al Señor continuamente, soltero y sin hijos, lleno del Espíritu Santo, murió a la edad de 84 años. (p. 335)

Epifanio declara que Lucas fue uno de los Setenta Apóstoles (Panarion 51.11), y San Juan Crisóstomo indica en cierto momento que el "hermano" que Pablo menciona en la Segunda Epístola a Corintios 8:18 es Lucas o Bernabé. Si uno acepta que Lucas era en realidad el autor del Evangelio que lleva su nombre y también los Hechos de los Apóstoles, ciertos detalles de su vida personal pueden asumirse razonablemente. Si bien él se excluye de aquellos que fueron testigos presenciales del ministerio de Jesús, usa repetidamente la palabra "nosotros" al describir las misiones paulinas en Hechos de los Apóstoles, indicando que él estaba personalmente allí en esos tiempos. Hay pruebas similares de que Lucas residía en Troas, la provincia que incluía las ruinas de la antigua Troya, en que escribe en Hechos en tercera persona sobre Pablo y sus viajes hasta llegar a Troas, donde cambia a la primera persona plural. La sección "nosotros" de los Hechos continúa hasta que el grupo abandona a Filipos, cuando su escritura se remonta a la tercera persona. Este cambio ocurre nuevamente cuando el grupo regresa a Filipos. Hay tres "nosotros secciones" en Hechos, todos siguiendo esta regla. Sin embargo, Lucas nunca dijo que él vivía en Troas, y esta es la única evidencia de que lo hizo.

San Lucas como se muestra en la cabeza de un manuscrito del Evangelio armenio de 1609 realizado en la Biblioteca Bodleian.

La composición de los escritos, así como el rango de vocabulario utilizado, indican que el autor era un hombre educado. Una cita en la Carta de Pablo a los Colosenses diferencia entre Lucas y otros colegas "de la circuncisión". 

10 Mi compañero prisionero Aristarco te envía sus saludos, al igual que Marcos, el primo de Bernabé. 11 Jesús, que se llama Justus, también envía saludos. Estos son los únicos judíos entre mis compañeros de trabajo para el reino de Dios, y han demostrado ser un consuelo para mí. ... 14 Nuestro querido amigo Lucas, el médico y los demas envían saludos. Colosenses 4: 10-11, 14.

Este comentario ha provocado tradicionalmente que los comentaristas concluyeran que Lucas era un gentil. Si esto fuera cierto, haría a San Lucas el único escritor del Nuevo Testamento que claramente puede ser identificado como no siendo judío. Sin embargo, esa no es la única posibilidad. Aunque se considera que San Lucas es un cristiano gentil, algunos eruditos creen que es un judío helenizado. La frase podría usarse fácilmente para diferenciar entre aquellos cristianos que observaron estrictamente los rituales del judaísmo y aquellos que no lo hicieron. La presencia de Lucas en Roma con el apóstol Pablo cerca del final de la vida de San Pablo fue atestiguada por 2 Timoteo 4:11: "Sólo Lucas está conmigo". En el último capítulo del Libro de los Hechos, ampliamente atribuido a Lucas, encontramos varios relatos en primera persona que también afirman la presencia de Lucas en Roma, incluyendo Hechos 28:16: "Y cuando llegamos a Roma ..." Según algunas cuentas , Lucas también contribuyó a la autoría de la Epístola a los Hebreos. Lucas murió a los 84 años en Beocia, según una "tradición bastante temprana y extendida". Según Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos (Historia eclesiástica del siglo XIV, Migne P.G. 145, 876) y otros, la tumba de Lucas se encontraba en Tebas, de donde sus reliquias fueron trasladadas a Constantinopla en el año 357.

La autoría de Lucas y Hechos
 El Evangelio de San Lucas no nombra a su autor. El Evangelio no fue escrito y no pretende ser escrito por testigos directos de los eventos informados, a diferencia de los Hechos que comienzan en el capítulo XVI. El primer manuscrito del Evangelio, datado alrededor del año 200 DC, atribuye el trabajo a Lucas; como lo hizo Ireneo, escribiendo alrededor del año 180 dC, y el fragmento muratoriano del año 170 dC. El evangelio de Lucas y los Hechos de los Apóstoles constituyen una obra de dos volúmenes que los eruditos llaman Lucas-Hechos. Juntos representan el 27.5% del Nuevo Testamento, la mayor contribución de un solo autor.

Como historiador
Una iluminación medieval armenia de Lucas, por Toros Roslin.

La mayoría de los eruditos entienden las obras de San Lucas (Lucas-Hechos) en la tradición de la historiografía griega. El prefacio de El Evangelio de Lucas basado en la investigación histórica identificó el trabajo para los lectores como perteneciente al género de la historia. Hay algunos desacuerdos sobre la mejor manera de tratar los escritos de Lucas, con algunos historiadores con respecto a Lucas como altamente precisos, y otros tomando un enfoque más crítico. Sobre la base de su descripción precisa de ciudades, ciudades e islas, así como también nombrar correctamente varios títulos oficiales, el arqueólogo Sir William Ramsay escribió que "Lucas es un historiador de primer rango, no solo sus declaraciones de hecho son dignas de confianza ... [ ] debe colocarse junto con el más grande de los historiadores ". Profesor de Clásicos en la Universidad de Auckland, EM Blaiklock, escribió: "Para la precisión de los detalles y para la evocación de la atmósfera, Lucas está de hecho con Tucídides. Los Hechos de los Apóstoles no son un producto de mala calidad de la imaginación piadosa, sino un récord confiable ... Fue la excavación de la arqueología la que primero reveló la verdad ". El erudito del Nuevo Testamento, Colin Hemer, ha realizado una serie de avances en la comprensión de la naturaleza histórica y la precisión de los escritos de Lucas.

Como artista
 Lucas el Evangelista pintando el primer ícono de la Virgen María.

San Lucas pinta a la Señora y el  Niño Jesús, por Maarten van Heemskerck

La tradición cristiana, a partir del siglo VIII, afirma que fue el primer pintor de íconos. Se dice que ha pintado imágenes de la Virgen María y el Niño, en particular la imagen de Hodegetria en Constantinopla (ahora perdida). A partir del siglo XI se venera una cantidad de imágenes pintadas como su autógrafo, incluyendo, por ejemplo, la Virgen Negra de Częstochowa y Nuestra Señora de Vladimir. También se dijo que pintó a los Santos Pedro y Pablo, y que ilustró un libro del Evangelio con un ciclo completo de miniaturas. Los últimos gremios medievales de San Lucas en las ciudades de la Europa medieval tardía, especialmente Flandes, o la "Academia de San Luca" (Academia de San Lucas) en Roma -mimitada en muchas otras ciudades europeas durante el siglo XVI- reunieron y protegieron pintores . La tradición de que Lucas pintó íconos de María y Jesús ha sido común, particularmente en Oriente. La tradición también cuenta con el apoyo de los cristianos de Santo Tomás de la India que afirman que todavía tienen uno de los iconos de Theotokos que pintó San Lucas y que Santo Tomás trajo a la India.


Lucas y la Madonna, Altar del Gremio de San Lucas, Hermen Rode, Lübeck 1484.

En representaciones tradicionales, como pinturas, retratos evangelistas y mosaicos de iglesias, San Lucas suele estar acompañado por un buey o un toro, generalmente con alas. A veces solo se muestra el símbolo, especialmente cuando se trata de una combinación de los cuatro evangelistas.

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martes, 17 de octubre de 2017

St. Margaret Mary Alacoque - Santa Margarita María de Alacoque


St. Margaret Mary Alacoque, V.H.M. (French: Marguerite-Marie Alacoque) (1647–1690), was a French Roman Catholic nun, who promoted the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

She worked to prove the genuineness of her vocation and her visions of Jesus and Mary relating to the Sacred Heart. She was initially rebuffed by her mother superior and was unable to convince theologians of the validity of her visions. A noted exception was Jesuit Saint Claude de la Colombière, who supported her. The devotion to the Sacred Heart was officially recognized 75 years after Alacoque's death. In his encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor, Pope Pius XI stated that Jesus Christ had "manifested Himself" to Saint Margaret and referred to the conversation between Jesus and Saint Margaret several times.
Early life
Alacoque was born in 1647 in L'Hautecour, now part of the commune of Verosvres, then in the Duchy of Burgundy, the only daughter of Claude and Philiberte Lamyn Alacoque, who had also several sons. From early childhood, Margaret was described as showing intense love for the Blessed Sacrament, and as preferring silence and prayer to childhood play.
After her First Communion at the age of nine, she practiced in secret severe corporal mortification, until rheumatic fever confined her to bed for four years. At the end of this period, having made a vow to the Blessed Virgin to consecrate herself to religious life, she was instantly restored to perfect health. In recognition of this favor, she added the name Mary to her baptismal name of Margaret. According to her later account of her life, she had visions of Jesus Christ, which she thought were a normal part of human experience and continued to practice austerity.
Alacoque lost her father at a young age, and the family's assets were held by a relative who refused to hand them over, plunging her family into poverty. During this time, her only consolation was frequent visits to pray before the Blessed Sacrament in the local church. When she was 17, however, the family regained their fortune and her mother encouraged her to socialize, in the hopes of her finding a suitable husband. Out of obedience, and believing that her childhood vow was no longer binding, she began to accompany her brothers in the social events, attending dances and balls.
One night, after returning home from a ball for Carnival dressed in her finery, she experienced a vision of Christ, scourged and bloody. He reproached her for her forgetfulness of Him; yet He also reassured her by demonstrating that his Heart was filled with love for her, because of the childhood promise she had made to his Blessed Mother. As a result, she determined to fulfill her vow and entered, when almost 24 years of age, the Visitation Convent at Paray-le-Monial on 25 May 1671, intending to become a nun.
Monastic life
Alacoque was subjected to many trials to prove the genuineness of her vocation. She was admitted to wearing the religious habit on 25 August 1671, but was not allowed to make her religious profession on the same date of the following year, which would have been normal. A fellow novice described Margaret Mary as humble, simple and frank, but above all kind and patient. Finally, she was admitted to profession on 6 November 1672. It is said that she was assigned to the infirmary and was not very skillful at her tasks.

Jesus appearing to St. Margaret Mary, Church of San Michele, Cortemilia, Italy

In this monastery Alacoque received several private revelations of the Sacred Heart, the first on 27 December 1673 and the final one 18 months later. The visions revealed to her the form of the devotion, the chief features being reception of Holy Communion on the first Friday of each month, Eucharistic adoration during a "Holy hour" on Thursdays, and the celebration of the Feast of the Sacred Heart. She stated that in her vision she was instructed to spend an hour every Thursday night to meditate on Jesus' Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. The Holy Hour practice later became widespread among Catholics.
On 27 December 1673, the feast of St. John, Margaret Mary reported that Jesus permitted her to rest her head upon his heart, and then disclosed to her the wonders of his love, telling her that he desired to make them known to all mankind and to diffuse the treasures of his goodness, and that he had chosen her for this work.
Initially discouraged in her efforts to follow the instruction she had received in her visions, Alacoque was eventually able to convince her superior, Mother de Saumaise, of the authenticity of her visions. She was unable, however, to convince a group of theologians of the validity of her apparitions, nor was she any more successful with many of the members of her own community, and suffered greatly at their hands. She eventually received the support of St. Claude de la Colombière, S.J., the community's confessor for a time, who declared that the visions were genuine. In 1683, opposition in the community ended when Mother Melin was elected Superior and named Margaret Mary her assistant. She later became Novice Mistress, and saw the monastery observe the Feast of the Sacred Heart privately, beginning in 1686. Two years later, a chapel was built at Paray-le-Monial to honor the Sacred Heart.
Alacoque died on 17 October 1690.

Blessed Mary of the Divine Heart and St. Margarette Mary Alacoque adoring the Sacred Heart of Jesus

After Alacoque the devotion to the Sacred Heart was fostered by the Jesuits and the subject of controversies within the Church. The practice was not officially recognized until 75 years later.
The discussion of Alacoque's own mission and qualities continued for years. All her actions, her revelations, her spiritual maxims, her teachings regarding the devotion to the Sacred Heart, of which she was the chief exponent as well as the apostle, were subjected to the most severe and minute examination, and finally the Sacred Congregation of Rites passed a favourable vote on the heroic virtues of this "servant of God". In March 1824, Pope Leo XII pronounced her Venerable and on 18 September 1864 Pope Pius IX declared her Blessed.When her tomb was canonically opened in July 1830, two instantaneous cures were recorded to have taken place. Her incorrupt body rests above the side altar in the Chapel of the Apparitions, located at the Visitation Monastery in Paray-le-Monial, and many striking blessings have been claimed by pilgrims attracted there from all parts of the world.
Alacoque was canonized by Pope Benedict XV in 1920, and in 1929 her liturgical commemoration was included in the General Roman calendar for celebration on 17 October, the day of her death.
In his 1928 encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor, Pope Pius XI affirmed the Church's position regarding the credibility of her visions of Jesus Christ by speaking of Jesus as having "manifested Himself" to Saint Margaret Mary and having "promised her that all those who rendered this honour to His Heart would be endowed with an abundance of heavenly graces".
Alacoque's short devotional writing, La Devotion au Sacré-Coeur de Jesus (Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus), was published posthumously by J. Croiset in 1698, and has been popular among Catholics.
Mariologists refer to Saint Marguerite Marie Alacoque as "living proof how Marian devotion is linked to 'Christology'" and the adoration of Jesus Christ.
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Santa Margarita María Alacoque, V.H.M. (Francés: Marguerite-Marie Alacoque) (1647-1690), fue una monja católica romana francesa, que promovió la devoción al Sagrado Corazón de Jesús.

Trabajó para demostrar la autenticidad de su vocación y sus visiones de Jesús y María relacionadas con el Sagrado Corazón. Inicialmente, fue rechazada por su madre superiora y no pudo convencer a los teólogos de la validez de sus visiones. Una notable excepción fue el jesuita Saint Claude de la Colombière, quien la apoyó. La devoción al Sagrado Corazón fue reconocida oficialmente 75 años después de la muerte de Alacoque. En su encíclica Miserentissimus Redemptor, el Papa Pío XI declaró que Jesucristo se había "manifestado" a Santa Margarita y se refirió a la conversación entre Jesús y Santa Margarita varias veces.
Vida temprana
Alacoque nació en 1647 en L'Hautecour, ahora parte de la comuna de Verosvres, luego en el ducado de Borgoña, la única hija de Claude y Filiberto Lamyn Alacoque, que también tenía varios hijos. Desde la primera infancia, se describió que Margaret mostraba un intenso amor por el Santísimo Sacramento y prefería el silencio y la oración a la infancia. Después de su primera comunión a la edad de nueve años, practicó en una mortificación corporal severa y secreta, hasta que la fiebre reumática la confinó a la cama durante cuatro años. Al final de este período, después de haber hecho un voto a la Santísima Virgen para consagrarse a la vida religiosa, al instante se restableció a la salud perfecta. En reconocimiento de este favor, ella agregó el nombre de María a su nombre bautismal de Margaret. Según su relato posterior de su vida, ella tuvo visiones de Jesucristo, que ella pensó que eran una parte normal de la experiencia humana y continuaron practicando la austeridad. Alacoque perdió a su padre a una edad temprana, y los bienes de la familia estaban en manos de un pariente que se negó a entregarlos, sumiendo a su familia en la pobreza. Durante este tiempo, su único consuelo fue visitas frecuentes para orar ante el Santísimo Sacramento en la iglesia local. Sin embargo, cuando tenía 17 años, la familia recuperó su fortuna y su madre la animó a socializar, con la esperanza de encontrar un marido adecuado. Por obediencia, y creyendo que el voto de su infancia ya no era vinculante, comenzó a acompañar a sus hermanos en los eventos sociales, asistiendo a bailes y bailes. Una noche, después de regresar a casa de un baile para el Carnaval vestido con sus galas, experimentó una visión de Cristo, flagelada y sangrienta. La reprochó por su olvido de Él; sin embargo, Él también la tranquilizó al demostrar que su Corazón estaba lleno de amor por ella, debido a la promesa de la infancia que había hecho a su Mater. Como resultado, ella decidió cumplir su promesa e ingresó, cuando tenía casi 24 años, el Convento de Visitación en Paray-le-Monial el 25 de mayo de 1671, con la intención de convertirse en monja.
Vida monástica 
 Alacoque fue sometida a muchas pruebas para demostrar la autenticidad de su vocación. Fue admitida a usar el hábito religioso el 25 de agosto de 1671, pero no se le permitió hacer su profesión religiosa en la misma fecha del año siguiente, lo que habría sido normal. Una compañera novicia describió a Margaret Mary como humilde, sencilla y franca, pero sobre todo amable y paciente. Finalmente, fue admitida a la profesión el 6 de noviembre de 1672. Se dice que fue asignada a la enfermería y que no era muy hábil en sus tareas.

 Jesús apareciendose ante Santa Margarita María, Iglesia de San Michele, Cortemilia, Italia

En este monasterio Alacoque recibió varias revelaciones privadas del Sagrado Corazón, el primero el 27 de diciembre de 1673 y el último 18 meses después. Las visiones le revelaron la forma de la devoción, las principales características son la recepción de la Sagrada Comunión el primer viernes de cada mes, la adoración eucarística durante una "hora sagrada" los jueves y la celebración de la fiesta del Sagrado Corazón. Afirmó que en su visión se le indicó que pasara una hora cada jueves por la noche para meditar en la Agonía de Jesús en el Huerto de Getsemaní. La práctica de la Hora Santa se generalizó más tarde entre los católicos. El 27 de diciembre de 1673, en la fiesta de San Juan, Margaret Mary informó que Jesús le permitió descansar su cabeza sobre su corazón, y luego le reveló las maravillas de su amor, diciéndole que deseaba darles a conocer a toda la humanidad y para difundir los tesoros de su bondad, y que él la había elegido para este trabajo. Al principio, desalentada en sus esfuerzos por seguir las instrucciones que había recibido en sus visiones, Alacoque finalmente pudo convencer a su superior, Madre de Saumaise, de la autenticidad de sus visiones. Sin embargo, no pudo convencer a un grupo de teólogos de la validez de sus apariciones, ni tampoco tuvo más éxito con muchos de los miembros de su propia comunidad, y sufrió mucho en sus manos. Eventualmente recibió el apoyo de St. Claude de la Colombière, S.J., el confesor de la comunidad por un tiempo, quien declaró que las visiones eran genuinas. En 1683, la oposición en la comunidad terminó cuando la Madre Melin fue elegida Superior y nombró a su asistente Margaret Mary. Más tarde se convirtió en Novicia Maestra, y vio el monasterio observar la Fiesta del Sagrado Corazón en privado, a partir de 1686. Dos años más tarde, se construyó una capilla en Paray-le-Monial para honrar el Sagrado Corazón. Alacoque murió el 17 de octubre de 1690.


Beata María del Divino Corazón y Santa Margarita María Alacoque adorando el Sagrado Corazón de Jesús

Después de Alacoque la devoción al Sagrado Corazón fue fomentada por los jesuitas y el tema de las controversias dentro de la Iglesia. La práctica no se reconoció oficialmente hasta 75 años después. La discusión sobre la misión y las cualidades de Alacoque continuó durante años. Todas sus acciones, sus revelaciones, sus máximas espirituales, sus enseñanzas con respecto a la devoción al Sagrado Corazón, de la cual era tanto exponente principal como apóstol, fueron sometidas al examen más severo y minucioso, y finalmente a la Sagrada Congregación de Los ritos aprobaron un voto favorable sobre las virtudes heroicas de este "siervo de Dios". En marzo de 1824, el Papa León XII pronunció su Venerable y el 18 de septiembre de 1864 el Papa Pío IX la declaró Beata. Cuando su tumba se abrió canónicamente en julio de 1830, se registraron dos curas instantáneas. Su cuerpo incorrupto descansa sobre el altar lateral en la Capilla de las Apariciones, ubicado en el Monasterio de la Visitación en Paray-le-Monial, y muchos sorprendentes bendiciones han sido reclamadas por los peregrinos allí atraídos de todas partes del mundo. Alacoque fue canonizada por el Papa Benedicto XV en 1920, y en 1929 su conmemoración litúrgica fue incluida en el calendario romano general para celebrarse el 17 de octubre, el día de su muerte. En su encíclica Miserentissimus Redemptor de 1928, el Papa Pío XI afirmó la posición de la Iglesia con respecto a la credibilidad de sus visiones de Jesucristo al hablar de Jesús haberse "manifestado" a Santa Margarita María y haber "prometido que todos los que le dieron este honor Su corazón estaría dotado de una gran cantidad de gracias celestiales ". La breve escritura devocional de Alacoque, La Devoción al Sacré-Coeur de Jesús (Devoción al Sagrado Corazón de Jesús), fue publicada póstumamente por J. Croiset en 1698, y ha sido popular entre los católicos. Los mariólogos se refieren a Saint Marguerite Marie Alacoque como "prueba viviente de cómo la devoción mariana está vinculada a la 'cristología'" y la adoración a Jesucristo.
Para más información visite:

lunes, 16 de octubre de 2017






 1673年に、彼女が祈っているとキリストが現われ、「ごらんなさい。人びとを愛するために多くの苦痛を忍んだわたしの心を。それなのに多くの人びとは、この愛に対して冷淡で、受けた恵みを忘れています」と言われ、「み心の信心」を広めるように命じられた。初めは、多くの反対にあったが、次第に「み心の信心」は広まり、マルガリタの死後、この信心は全世界に広がった。1856年、教皇ピオ9 世によって「み心の祝日」が定められた。

martes, 10 de octubre de 2017

The Liturgical Revolution – The Invalid New Mass

Taken from

Lea este artículo en Español aquí

“Truly, if one of the devils in C.S. Lewis’ The Screwtape Letters had been entrusted with the ruin of the liturgy he could not have done it better.”1


The Traditional Latin Mass, the most holy act of worship of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, was codified by Pope St. Pius V in his Bull Quo Primum in 1570. 
   Misa Tradicional

  In his famous Bull Quo Primum, Pope St. Pius V forbade changing the traditional Latin Mass.

Pope St. Pius V, Quo Primum Tempore, July 14, 1570: “Now, therefore, in order that all everywhere may adopt and observe what has been delivered to them by the Holy Roman Church, Mother and Mistress of the other churches, it shall be unlawful henceforth and forever throughout the Christian world to sing or to read Masses according to any formula other than this Missal published by Us… Accordingly, no one whosoever is permitted to infringe or rashly contravene this notice of Our permission, statute, ordinance, command, direction, grant, indult, declaration, will, decree, and prohibition.  Should any venture to do so, let him understand that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul.”2

On April 3, 1969, Paul VI replaced the Traditional Latin Mass in the Vatican II churches with his own creation, the New Mass or Novus Ordo.  Since that time, the world has seen the following in the Vatican II churches which celebrate the New Mass or Novus Ordo:

The world has seen Clown Masses, in which the “priest” dresses as a clown in utter mockery of God.
The invalid New Mass
Nueva Misa de Payasos

  The world has seen a priest dressed as Dracula; in a football jersey accompanied by cheerleaders; as a cheese-head… 
Nueva Misa con un ‘sacerdote’ llegando un queso en la cabeza
  …driving a Volkswagen down the aisle of church as the people sing hosanna. There have been disco Masses…   
Se han visto misas disco

  ...gymnastic performances during the New Mass; balloon Masses; Carnival Masses;     
Nueva Misa con globos; misas de carnaval.

  …nude Masses, at which scantily clad or nude people take part.  The world has seen juggling Masses, at which a juggler performs during the New Mass.  
Misas de malabares

The world has seen priests celebrate the New Mass with Dorito Chips;   
Nueva misa con doritos chips
  …with Mountain Dew; on a cardboard box; with cookies; with Chinese tea accompanied by ancestor worship; with a basketball as the priest bounces it all over the altar; with a guitar as the priest plays a solo performance.  The world has witnessed the New Mass with a priest almost totally nude as he dances around the altar or with other high-wire abominations…  
Nueva misa con un sacerdote casi desnudo sobre una cuerda floja
  The world has seen New Masses with priests dressed in native pagan costumes;   
 Nuevas misas con sacerdotes vestidos con trajes nativos paganosNuevas misas con sacerdotes vestidos con trajes nativos

 …with a Jewish Menorah placed on the altar;   
Benedicto XVI menorá judía
    …with a statue of Buddha on the altar; with nuns making offerings to female goddesses; with lectors and gift bearers dressed up as voodoo Satanists.  The world has seen the New Mass at which the performer is dressed in a tuxedo and tells jokes.  The world has seen rock concerts at the New Mass;   
‘Sacerdote’ rokero "padre Jony" en la Nueva Misa
   …guitar and polka New Masses; 
 ‘Sacerdote’ con guitarra y una mujer en el altar en la Nueva Misa
 Nueva Misa de polca

  …a puppet New Mass; a New Mass where the people gather round the altar dressed as devils;   
Nueva misa con personas vestidas de diablos
Nueva misa con trajes satánicos en Halloween 
 …a New Mass where people perform lewd dances to the beat of a steel drum band.  The world has seen a New Mass where nuns dressed as pagan vestal virgins make pagan offerings.
Nueva misa donde las monjas se visten como vírgenes paganas presentando ofrendas 
Nueva misa donde las monjas se visten como vírgenes paganas presentando ofrendas

 The world has also seen New Masses incorporating every false religion.  There have been Buddhist New masses;   
Nueva misa budista, estatua de buda sobre el altar

  …Hindu and Muslim New Masses; 
Nueva Misa hindú
Nueva misa con bailarinas y danza hindú
  …New Masses where Jews and Unitarians offer candles to false gods.  There are churches where the entire congregation says Mass with the priest;   
Nueva Misa Carismática
  …where the priest sometimes talks to the people instead of saying Mass.  

What we have catalogued is just a tiny sampling of the kind of thing that occurs in every diocese in the world where the New Mass is celebrated, to one degree or another.  Our Lord tells us, “By their fruits you shall know them” (Mt. 7:16).  The fruits of the New Mass are incalculably scandalous, sacrilegious and idolatrous.  This is because the New Mass itself, even in its most pure form, is a false, invalid Mass and an abomination.
El senador abortista John Kerry recibiendo la “comunión 
Pro-abortion politician, John Kerry, receiving "communion"

Even an organization which defends the New Mass was forced to admit the following about the typical New Mass – i.e., the New Mass normally offered in the churches (without even necessarily considering the aforementioned abominations and sacrileges that are commonplace): “Most of the New Masses we’ve attended… are happy-clappy festivities, the music is atrocious, the sermons are vacuous, and they are irreverent...”
Nueva Misa y falsa adoración eucarística

 When the New Mass came out in 1969, Cardinals Ottaviani, Bacci, and some other theologians wrote to Paul VI about it.  Keep in mind that what they said about the New Mass concerns the Latin Version, the so-called “most pure” version of the New Mass.  Their study is popularly known as The Ottaviani Intervention.  It states:  

“The Novus Ordo [the New Order of Mass] represents, both as a whole and in its details, a striking departure from the Catholic theology of the Mass as it was formulated in Session 22 of the Council of Trent.”4

They could clearly see that the Latin version of the New Mass was a striking departure from the teaching of the Council of Trent.  Of the twelve offertory prayers in the Traditional Mass, only two are retained in the New Mass.  The deleted offertory prayers are the same ones that the Protestant heretics Martin Luther and Thomas Cranmer eliminated.  The New Mass was promulgated by Paul VI with the help of six Protestant Ministers.  
Los seis ministros protestantes que ayudaron a diseñar la nueva misa fueron los Docs. George, Jasper, Shepherd, Kunneth, Smith y Thurian.
The six Protestant Ministers who helped design the New Mass were: Drs. George, Jasper, Shepherd, Kunneth, Smith and Thurian.

Paul VI even admitted to his good friend Jean Guitton that his intention in changing the Mass was to make it Protestant.

Jean Guitton (an intimate friend of Paul VI) wrote: “The intention of Pope Paul VI with regard to what is commonly called the [New] Mass, was to reform the Catholic liturgy in such a way that it should almost coincide with the Protestant liturgy.  There was with Pope Paul VI an ecumenical intention to remove, or, at least to correct, or, at least to relax, what was too Catholic in the traditional sense in the Mass and, I repeat, to get the Catholic Mass closer to the Calvinist Mass.” 

Paul VI removed what was too Catholic in the Mass in order to make the Mass a Protestant service.  

A study of the propers and orations of the Traditional Mass versus the New Mass reveals a massacre of the Traditional Faith.  The traditional Missal contains 1182 orations.  About 760 of those were dropped entirely from the New Mass.  Of the approximately 36% which remained, the revisers altered over half of them before introducing them into the new Missal.  Thus, only some 17% of the orations from the Traditional Mass made it untouched into the New Mass.  What’s also striking is the content of the revisions that were made to the orations.  The Traditional Orations which described the following concepts were specifically abolished from the New Missal: the depravity of sin; the snares of wickedness; the grave offense of sin; the way to perdition; terror in the face of God’s fury; God’s indignation; the blows of His wrath; the burden of evil; temptations; wicked thoughts; dangers to the soul; enemies of soul and body.  Also eliminated were orations which described: the hour of death; the loss of heaven; everlasting death; eternal punishment; the pains of Hell and its fire.  Special emphasis was made to abolish from the New Mass the orations which described detachment from the world; prayers for the departed; the true Faith and the existence of heresy; the references to the Church militant, the merits of the saints, miracles and Hell. One can see the results of this massacre of the Traditional Faith from the propers of the New Mass.
Esta no es la misa en latín sino una falsa misa de malabaristas de fuego
 The New Mass is fraught with sacrileges, profanations and the most ridiculous abominations imaginable because it reflects a false religion which has abandoned the traditional Catholic Faith.    
Nueva Misa masónica con mujeres
The false religion the New Mass reflects is one reason why it is completely empty; it is why the fruits are utterly desolate, barren and almost unspeakably bad.  The religion practiced at the churches where the New Mass is said, simply put, is a complete sacrilege and an empty celebration of man. 
Nueva misa falsa religión
Fray Tormenta con máscara de luchador diciendo no la misa en latín, sino la nuva misa

Even Dietrich von Hildebrand, a supporter of the Vatican II religion, said about the New Mass: 

“Truly, if one of the devils in C.S. Lewis’ The Screwtape Letters had been entrusted with the ruin of the liturgy he could not have done it better.”

 With the exception of a single genuflection by the celebrant after the consecration, virtually every sign of respect for the Body and Blood of Christ which characterized the Traditional Mass has either been abolished or made optional for the New Mass.   
Pantera Rosa en ‘misa católica’
Nueva Misa de cara sonrisa infantil

 It’s no longer obligatory for the sacred vessels to be gilded if they are not made of precious metals.  Sacred vessels, which only the anointed hands of a priest could touch, are now handled by all.    
Nueva Misa destruye la misa en latín
The priest frequently shakes hands before distributing the host. The General Instruction for the New Mass also declares that altars no longer need to be of natural stone; that an altar stone containing the relics of martyrs is no longer required; that only one cloth is required on the altar; that it is not necessary to have a crucifix or even candles upon the altar.

Not even one of the mandatory requirements developed over 2,000 years to ensure that the altar is of fitting dignity has been retained in the New Mass.
Nueva misa carismática
 When the Protestants split from the Catholic Church in England in the 16th century, they changed the Mass to reflect their heretical beliefs.  The altars were replaced by tables.  Latin was replaced by English.  Statues and icons were removed from the churches.  The Last Gospel and the Confiteor were abolished.  “Communion” was distributed in the hand.  Mass was said out loud and facing the Congregation.  Traditional music was discarded and replaced with new music.  Three-fourths of the priests in England went along with the New Service.  

This is also precisely what happened in 1969, when Paul VI promulgated the New Mass, the Novus Ordo Missae.  The similarities between the 1549 Anglican Prayer Book and the New Mass are striking.  One expert noted: 

“The extent to which the Novus Ordo Mass departs from the theology of the Council of Trent can best be gauged by comparing the prayers which the Consilium removed from the liturgy to those removed by the heretic Thomas Cranmer.  The coincidence is not simply striking – it is horrifying.  It cannot, in fact, be a coincidence.” 

In order to emphasize their heretical belief that the Mass is not a sacrifice, but just a meal, the Protestants removed the altar and put a table in its place.  In Protestant England, for example, “On November 23, 1550 the Privy Council ordered all altars in England destroyed and replaced by communion tables.” 
Mesa protestante en la nueva misa
A Vatican II church with a Protestant-like table for its new Protestant “Mass”

The chief Protestant heretics declared: “The form of a table shall more move the simple from the superstitious opinions of the popish Mass unto the right use of the Lord’s Supper.  For the use of an altar is to make sacrifice upon it: the use of a table is to serve men to eat upon.” The Welsh Catholic martyr, Richard Gwyn, declared in protest against this change: “In place of an altar there is a miserable table, in place of Christ there is bread.”
And St. Robert Bellarmine noted: “…when we enter the temples of the heretics, where there is nothing except a chair for preaching and a table for making a meal, we feel ourselves to be entering a profane hall and not the house of God.”  
Al igual que el nuevo servicio de los protestantes, la nueva misa se celebra sobre una mesa

Just like the new services of the Protestant revolutionaries, the New Mass is celebrated on a table.    
Interior de iglesia con nueva misa y mesa altar

 The 1549 Anglican Prayer Book was also called “The Supper of the Lord, and the holy Communion, commonly called the Mass.”15  This title emphasized the Protestant belief that the Mass is just a meal, a supper – and not a sacrifice.  When Paul VI promulgated the General Instruction for the New Mass, it was entitled exactly the same way.  Its title was: “The Lord’s Supper or Mass.”
La misa en latín no usa mesas para su altar

The 1549 Anglican Prayer Book removed from the Mass the psalm Give Judgment for me, O God, because of its reference to the altar of God.  This psalm was also suppressed in the New Mass.

The 1549 Anglican Prayer Book removed from the Mass the prayer which begins Take away from us our sins, because it evokes sacrifice.  This was also suppressed in the New Mass.

The prayer which begins We beseech Thee, O Lord, refers to relics in the altar stone.  This prayer has been suppressed in the New Mass.

In the 1549 Anglican Prayer Book the Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, Collect, Epistle, Gospel and Creed were all retained.  They have all been retained in the New Mass.

The equivalent to the Offertory Prayers: Accept, O holy Father…O God, Who has established the nature of man…We offer unto Thee, O Lord…In a humble spirit…Come, Thou Sanctifier, almighty… and Accept, most holy Trinity, were all suppressed in the 1549 Anglican Prayer Book.  They have all been suppressed in the New Mass, except for two excerpts.

In the 1549 Anglican Prayer Book, the Lift up your hearts dialogue, Preface and Sanctus were all retained.  They have been retained in the New Mass.
Nueva Misa anglicana

The Roman Canon was abolished by the 1549 Anglican Prayer Book.  It has been retained only as an option in the New Mass.
Thomas Cramner anglicano

Arch-heretics of the Protestant revolution: Thomas Cranmer (above) and Martin Luther (below)
Martín Lutero protestante

Thomas Cranmer (the author of the 1549 Anglican Prayer Book) and Martin Luther both abolished the prayer Deliver us, O Lord – probably because it mentions the intercession of Our Lady and the saints.  Only a modified version of this prayer has been retained in the New Mass, with no invocation of saints.  It should also be noted that the Offertory prayer in the New Mass which begins Blessed are you, Lord, God of all Creation is taken from a Jewish Table Prayer.

In fact, the Novus Ordo Mass also removed the traditional Good Friday prayer for the conversion of the Jews.  This prayer has been replaced with a prayer, not that the Jews convert, but that they “grow” in faithfulness to His covenant!  Thus, there is an expression of apostasy right in the official Good Friday prayer of the New Mass.  It’s a promotion of Judaism and the heresy that the Old Covenant is still valid.
 Two different Good Friday prayers for the Jews for two different religions

On Good Friday, the Novus Ordo religion prays: “for the Jewish people, the first to hear the word of God, that they may continue to grow in the love of his name and in faithfulness to His covenant.”

But the Catholic Church prays on Good Friday: “for the perfidious Jews: that Our Lord and God may lift the covering off their hearts, so that they may acknowledge Jesus Christ Our Lord.”

In the 1549 Anglican Prayer Book, the equivalent of the prayer which begins, May the Mingling and Consecration of the Body and Blood, was abolished.  It’s very interesting that only a modified version of this prayer has been kept in the New Mass with the important word “consecration” removed.  

The 1549 Anglican Prayer Book abandoned the discipline of the Roman Rite in distributing Communion under one kind and gave Communion under both kinds.  At the New Mass Communion under both kinds is distributed in many places in the world.
La ‘comunión' en dos especies

 The 1552 version of the Anglican Prayer Book instructed that Communion was to be given in the hand to signify that the bread was ordinary bread and that the priest did not differ in essence from a layman.
‘Comunión’ en la mano por Anti Papa Juan Pablo II  Anti Papa Benedicto XVI da la ‘Comunión’ en la mano‘Comunión’ en la mano en Primera ‘Comuniön’ por Benedicto XVI
 Anti Papa Benedicto XVI le da ‘Comunión’ en la mano al protestante Roger Schutz‘Ministro eucarística’ mujer dando la ‘Comunión’ en la mano
  The New Mass implements Communion in the hand in almost every place in the world, and it even goes farther than Cranmer by allowing communicants to stand and receive from a lay minister.

 The prayers in the Traditional Mass which begin with: What has passed our lips as food and May Thy Body, O Lord, which I have eaten both make explicit reference to the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.  Both have been suppressed in the New Mass.

The prayer which begins May the tribute of my worship be pleasing to thee, most holy Trinity, was the least acceptable prayer after Communion to all the Protestants, because of its reference to propitiatory sacrifice.  Martin Luther, and Cranmer in his Anglican Prayer Book, suppressed it.  Following their lead, it was suppressed in the New Mass.

Now to the Last Gospel.  If the Last Gospel, which closes the Traditional Mass, had been included in the New Mass, then the New Mass would have clashed with the pattern of Protestant services, which conclude with a blessing.  So it was not included in the New Mass.

The prayers after the Traditional Mass, the Leonine Prayers, including the Hail Mary; the Hail Holy Queen; the O God our refuge; the prayer to St. Michael; and the appeal to the Sacred Heart, formed, in practice, an important part of the liturgy.  Five prayers less compatible with Protestantism could hardly be imagined.  They have all been suppressed in the New Mass.

Considering all of this, even Michael Davies agreed: “It is beyond dispute that… the Roman Rite has been destroyed.”

Besides the fact that the New Mass is a Protestant service, there is also the fact that the Novus Ordo churches bear a striking and undeniable resemblance to Freemasonic lodges.  Look at the pictures.  Here is a Freemasonic lodge:  
Interior de una logia masónica
  And here is a Novus Ordo church:   
Interior de una iglesia novus ordo

  The two are almost indistinguishable; the focus of both is on man, with the Presider’s Chair in the middle and a circular emphasis.  Perhaps this is because the primary architect of Paul VI’s New Mass was Cardinal Annibale Bugnini, who was a Freemason.  

Annibale Bugnini masón
Annibale Bugnini, primary architect of the New Mass and a Freemason

“Cardinal” Annibale Bugnini was Chairman of the Consilium which drafted Paul VI’s New Mass.  Bugnini was initiated into the Masonic Lodge on April 23, 1963, according to the Masonic Register in 1976.

In addition to all of these problems with the New Mass, there is one that looms even larger.  The biggest problem with the New Mass is that it is not valid.  Jesus Christ is not present in the New Mass because the New Mass has altered the very words of consecration. 


A sacrament is said to be valid if it takes place.  The Sacrament of the Eucharist is valid if the bread and wine become the actual Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ.  In order for any sacrament to be valid, matter, form, minister and intention must be present. 
Pope Eugene IV, Council of Florence, 1439: "All these sacraments are made up of three elements: namely, things as the matter, words as the form, and the person of the minister who confers the sacrament with the intention of doing what the Church does.  If any of these is lacking, the sacrament is not effected." 
The problem with the validity of the New Mass comes with the form, those words necessary to confect the Sacrament of the Eucharist.  The form necessary to confect the Eucharist in the Roman Rite was declared by Pope Eugene IV at the Council of Florence. 
Pope Eugene IV, Council of Florence, Cantate Domino, 1441: “…the holy Roman Church, relying on the teaching and authority of the apostles Peter and Paul… uses this form of words in the consecration of the Lord's Body: FOR THIS IS MY BODY. And of His blood: FOR THIS IS THE CHALICE OF MY BLOOD, OF THE NEW AND ETERNAL TESTAMENT: THE MYSTERY OF FAITH, WHICH SHALL BE SHED FOR YOU AND FOR MANY UNTO THE REMISSION OF SINS."22 

In Pope St. Pius V’s Decree De Defectibus, we find the same words repeated:
Pope St. Pius V, De Defectibus, chapter 5, Part 1:  "The words of Consecration, which are the FORM of this Sacrament, are these: FOR THIS IS MY BODY.  And: FOR THIS IS THE CHALICE OF MY BLOOD, OF THE NEW AND ETERNAL TESTAMENT: THE MYSTERY OF FAITH, WHICH SHALL BE SHED FOR YOU AND FOR MANY UNTO THE REMISSION OF SINS. 

Now if one were to remove, or change anything in the FORM of the consecration of the Body and Blood, and in that very change of words the [new] wording would fail to mean the same thing, he would not consecrate the sacrament."
This teaching appeared in the front of every Roman Altar Missal from 1570 to 1962.  We can see that the same words mentioned by the Council of Florence are declared to be necessary by Pope St. Pius V.  This is why all of these words of consecration are bolded in Traditional Roman Altar Missals, and why the Roman Missal instructs priests to hold the chalice until the completion of all these words.  

Pope St. Pius V’s teaching states that if the words of consecration are changed so that the meaning is altered, the priest does not confect the Sacrament.  In the New Mass the words of consecration have been drastically changed, and the meaning has been altered.

First, the original Latin version of the New Mass has removed the words mysterium fidei – “the mystery of Faith” – from the words of consecration.  This causes a grave doubt, because “mysterium fidei” is part of the form in the Roman Rite.  Though the words “mysterium fidei” are not part of some of the Eastern Rite formulas of consecration, they have been declared to be part of the Roman Rite.  They are also found in some Eastern Rites.  Pope Innocent III and the Canon of the Mass also tell us that the words “mysterium fidei” were given by Jesus Christ Himself. 

Pope Innocent III, Cum Marthae circa, Nov. 29, 1202, in response to a question about the form of the Eucharist and the inclusion of ‘mysterium fidei’: "You have asked (indeed) who has added to the form of words which Christ Himself expressed when He changed the bread and wine into the Body and Blood, that in the Canon of the Mass which the general Church uses, which none of the Evangelists is read to have expressed... In the Canon of the Mass that expression, ‘mysterium fidei,’ is found interposed among His words... Surely we find many such things omitted from the words as well as from the deeds of the Lord by the Evangelists, which the Apostles are read to have supplied by word or to have expressed by deed... Therefore, we believe that the form of words, as they are found in the Canon, the Apostles received from Christ, and their successors from them."

The words “the mystery of faith” in the consecration are a clear reference to the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.  These words were also removed by the heretic Thomas Cranmer in his 1549 Anglican Prayer book because of their clear reference to the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.25  When words are removed from a rite because the meaning they express contradicts the intended meaning of the rite, a doubt is caused.  More could be said on this matter, but we must now move to the crushing blow to the validity of the New Mass.   In almost all vernacular translations of the New Mass in the world, the words of consecration read as follows:
FORM OF CONSECRATION IN THE NEW MASS “For this is my body.  For this is the chalice of my blood, of the new and eternal testament.  It shall be shed for you and FOR ALL SO THAT SINS MAY BE FORGIVEN.”
The words “for you and for many unto the remission of sins” have been changed to for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven.  The word “many” has been removed and replaced with the word “all.”  This huge change invalidates all the New Masses.  First, the word many was used by Jesus to institute the sacrament of the Eucharist, as we see in Matthew 26:28: “For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins.”  The words used by Our Lord, “for many unto remission of sins,” represent the efficacy of the blood that Jesus shed.  Jesus’s blood is effective for the salvation of many, not all men.  In the process of explaining this, The Catechism of the Council of Trent specifically states that Our Lord did not mean “all” and therefore didn’t say it!
The Catechism of the Council of Trent, On the Form of the Eucharist, p. 227:  "The additional words for you and for many, are taken, some from Matthew, some from Luke, but were joined together by the Catholic Church under the guidance of the Spirit of God.  They serve to declare the fruit and advantage of His Passion.  For if we look to its value, we must confess that the Redeemer shed His Blood for the salvation of all; but if we look to the fruit which mankind has received from it, we shall easily find that it pertains not unto all, but to many of the human race.  When therefore (our Lord) said: For you, He meant either those who were present, or those chosen from among the Jewish people, such as were, with the exception of Judas, the disciples with whom He was speaking.  When He added, And for many, He wished to be understood to mean the remainder of the elect from among the Jews and Gentiles.  WITH REASON, THEREFORE, WERE THE WORDS FOR ALL NOT USED, as in this place the fruits of the Passion are alone spoken of, and to the elect only did His Passion bring the fruit of salvation."
As we can see, according to The Catechism of the Council of Trent the words “for all” were specifically not used by Our Lord because they would give a false meaning.  
St. Alphonsus De Liguori, Treatise on the Holy Eucharist:  "The words for you and for many are used to distinguish the virtue of the Blood of Christ from its fruits: for the Blood of Our Savior is of sufficient value to save all men but its fruits are applied only to a certain number and not to all, and this is their own fault...”27
The use of “all” changes the meaning of the form of consecration.  No one, not even a pope, can change the words that Jesus Christ specifically instituted for a sacrament of the Church. 
Pope Pius XII, Sacramentum Ordinis (# 1), Nov. 30, 1947:  "…the Church has no power over the 'substance of the sacraments,' that is, over those things which, with the sources of divine revelation as witnesses, Christ the Lord Himself decreed to be preserved in a sacramental sign..."28
Since “all” doesn’t mean the same thing as “many,” the sacrament is not confected in the New Mass.
Pope St. Pius V, De Defectibus, chapter 5, Part 1:  "The words of Consecration, which are the FORM of this Sacrament, are these: FOR THIS IS MY BODY.  And: FOR THIS IS THE CHALICE OF MY BLOOD, OF THE NEW AND ETERNAL TESTAMENT: THE MYSTERY OF FAITH, WHICH SHALL BE SHED FOR YOU AND FOR MANY UNTO THE REMISSION OF SINS.  Now if one were to remove, or change anything in the FORM of the consecration of the Body and Blood, and in that very change of words the [new] wording would fail to mean the same thing, he would not consecrate the sacrament." 29   ANOTHER ANGLE TO THIS ISSUE ABSOLUTELY PROVES THAT THE NEW MASS IS INVALID
There is another angle to this issue that we must now examine.  In his famous Bull, Apostolicae Curae in 1896, Pope Leo XIII teaches:

Pope Leo XIII, Apostolicae Curae, Sept. 13, 1896: “All know that the sacraments of the New Law, as sensible and efficient signs of invisible grace, must both signify the grace which they effect and effect the grace which they signify.”30

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If it does not signify the grace which it effects and effect the grace which it signifies it is not a sacrament – period.  So, what is the grace effected by the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist?  

Pope Eugene IV, Council of Florence, “Exultate Deo,” On the Eucharist, 1439: “Finally, this is a fitting way to signify the effect of this sacrament, that is, the union of the Christian people with Christ.”31

St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Pt. III, Q. 73, A. 3: “Now it was stated above that the reality of the sacrament [of the Eucharist] is the unity of the mystical body, without which there is no salvation…”32

As the Council of Florence, St. Thomas Aquinas, and many other theologians teach, the grace effected by the Eucharist is the union of the faithful with Christ.  St. Thomas calls this grace “the unity of the Mystical Body.”  The grace effected by the Eucharist (the union of the faithful with Christ or the unity of the Mystical Body) must be carefully distinguished from the Eucharist itself: the Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Christ.  

Since the union of the faithful with Christ is the grace effected by the Sacrament of the Eucharist – or what is also called the reality of the Sacrament or the grace proper to the Sacrament of the Eucharist – this grace must be signified in the form of the consecration for it to be valid, as Pope Leo XIII teaches.  Okay, so we must look at the traditional form of consecration and find where this grace – the union of the faithful with Christ – is signified.

The traditional form of consecration, as declared by Pope Eugene IV at the Council of Florence and Pope St. Pius V in De Defectibus, is as follows:


Note again: we are looking for that part of the form which signifies that the person who receives this sacrament worthily becomes united or more strongly united with Jesus Christ and His Mystical Body.

Do the words “OF THE NEW AND ETERNAL TESTAMENT” signify the union of the faithful with Christ/the Mystical Body?  No.  These words do not signify the Mystical Body, but rather they contrast the temporary and prefiguring sacrifices of the Old Law with the eternal and propitiatory sacrifice of Jesus Christ.

Do the words “THE MYSTERY OF FAITH” signify the union of the faithful with Christ/the Mystical Body?  No.  These words signify the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, as Innocent III teaches; they do not signify the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ.

Do the words “WHICH SHALL BE SHED” signify the union of the faithful with Christ/the Mystical Body?  No.  These words denote true sacrifice.

The only words left in the form of consecration are: “FOR YOU AND FOR MANY UNTO THE REMISSION OF SINS.”

The remission of sins is necessary for incorporation into the Mystical Body, and remission of sins is an indispensable component of true justification, by which one is fruitfully united to Jesus
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Christ.  The words “for you and for many” denote the members of the Mystical Body who have received such remission.  

The words “FOR YOU AND FOR MANY UNTO THE REMISSION OF SINS” are the words in the form of Consecration which signify the union of the faithful with Christ/the union of the Mystical Body of Christ, which is the grace proper to the Sacrament of the Eucharist.

Now, if we look to the Novus Ordo form of consecration, do we find the Mystical Body/the union of the faithful with Christ (the grace proper to the Sacrament of the Eucharist) signified?  Here is the form of consecration in the New Mass or Novus Ordo:
New Mass form: “This is my body.  This is the cup of my blood, of the new and eternal testament.  It shall be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven.”
Is the union of the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ signified by the words “for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven”?  No.  Are all men part of the Mystical Body?  No.  Are all men part of the faithful united with Christ?  No.  We can see very clearly that the New Mass or Novus Ordo most certainly does not signify the union of the Mystical Body (the grace proper to the Sacrament of the Eucharist), and therefore it is not a valid sacrament!  

One does not have to say anything more… the New Mass is not valid!  

Pope Leo XIII, Apostolicae Curae, 1896: “All know that the Sacraments of the New Law, as sensible and efficient signs of invisible grace, must both signify the grace which they effect and effect the grace which they signify.”33

Pope Leo XIII, Apostolicae Curae, 1896: “That form cannot be considered apt or sufficient for a Sacrament which omits that which it must essentially signify.”34

Pope Eugene IV, Council of Florence, “Exultate Deo,” 1438: “…this is a fitting way to signify the effect of this sacrament, that is, the union of the Christian people with Christ.”35   To further prove the point, we should note that in all the formulas of consecration in the liturgical rites of the Catholic Church, whether it is the Armenian Liturgy, the Coptic Liturgy, the Ethiopic Liturgy, the Syrian Liturgy, the Chaldean Liturgy, etc. the union of the faithful with Christ/the Mystical Body is signified in the form of consecration.  No liturgy that has ever been approved by the Church fails to signify the union of the faithful with Christ.

Here are the portions of the forms of consecration of the Wine used in Eastern Rites which signify what the Traditional Mass does and what the New Mass doesn’t: the union and members of the Church
THE ARMENIAN LITURGY: “….shed for you and for many for the expiation and forgiveness of sins.”

Note that the union and members of the Mystical Body are signified by the words “for you and for many for the expiation and forgiveness of sins.”
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THE BYZANTINE LITURGY: “… shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins.”

Note that the union and members of the Mystical Body are signified.

THE CHALDEAN LITURGY: “…shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins.”

Note that the union and members of the Mystical Body are signified.

THE COPTIC LITURGY: “…shed for you and for many unto the forgiveness of sins.”

Note that the union and members of the Mystical Body are signified.

THE ETHIOPIC LITURGY: “… shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sin.”

Note that the union and members of the Mystical Body are signified.

THE LITURGY OF MALABAR: “… shed for you and for many for the remission of sins.”

Note that the union and members of the Mystical Body are signified.

THE MARONITE LITURGY: (this form is identical to that which was always used in the Roman Rite)

THE SYRIAN LITURGY: “This is my Blood, of the New Covenant, which shall be poured out and offered for the forgiveness of the sins and eternal life of you and of many.”

Note that the union and members of the Mystical Body are signified by the words “for the forgiveness of the sins and eternal life of you and of many.”

The formula of consecration in all Catholic liturgies signifies the union of the faithful with Christ/the Mystical Body of Christ, as we can see.  The New Mass, which says, “for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven,” does not signify the Mystical Body, since all do not belong to the Mystical Body.  Thus, the New Mass does not signify the grace which the Eucharist effects.  It is not valid.

Therefore, a Catholic cannot attend the New “Mass” under pain of mortal sin.  Those who persist in doing so are committing idolatry (worshipping a piece of bread).  Jesus Christ is not present there.  The host is merely a piece of bread, not Our Lord’s Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity.  The Church has always taught that to approach a doubtful sacrament (which employs doubtful matter or form) is mortally sinful.  In fact, Pope Innocent XI, Decree of the Holy Office, March 4, 1679,36 even condemns the idea that Catholics can receive "probable" sacraments.  And the New Mass is not merely doubtful, it is invalid, since it does not signify the grace it is supposed to effect.  It is actually worse than a Protestant service; it is an abomination, which falsifies the words of Jesus Christ and the Catholic Faith. 

Note: At the time we are writing this there is some talk that the Vatican, in order to deceive traditionalists back into the Counter Church and the false New Mass, is planning to correct the “for all” error in the form of consecration.  The fact that the Vatican is going to do this proves that “for all” gives, as we’ve said, a false signification.  Even if they do this,  a Catholic would still have to avoid all New Masses under pain of mortal sin because the New Mass itself is a non
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Catholic service, it would still be missing the words “mysterium fidei” in the consecration, and most of the “priests” celebrating it are invalid anyway (as the next section proves).

Endnotes for Section 9:

1 The words of Dietrich Von Hildebrand, who was, nevertheless, a supporter of the Vatican II religion but felt compelled to make such a statement about the New Mass.  Quoted by Michael Davies, Pope Paul’s New Mass, Kansas City, MO: Angelus Press, 1980, p. 80. 2 Pope St. Pius V, Bull Quo Primum, July 14, 1570. 3 New Oxford Review, Berkeley, CA, November, 2006, “Notes.” 4 The Ottaviani Intervention, Rockford, IL: Tan Books. 5 Rama Coomeraswamy, The Problems with the New Mass, Tan Books, p. 34. 6 Fr. Anthony Cekada, The Problems With the Prayers of the Modern Mass, Tan Books, 1991, pp. 9-13. 7 Michael Davies, Pope Paul’s New Mass, Kansas City, MO: Angelus Press, p. 80. 8 Michael Davies, Pope Paul’s New Mass, p. 126.   9 Michael Davies, Pope Paul’s New Mass, p. 395.   10 Michael Davies, Pope Paul’s New Mass. 11 Warren H. Carroll, A History of Christendom, Vol. 4 (The Cleaving of Christendom), Front Royal, VA: Christendom Press, 2000, p. 229. 12 Michael Davies, Cranmer’s Godly Order, Fort Collins, CO: Roman Catholic Books, 1995, p. 183. 13 Michael Davies, Pope Paul’s New Mass, p. 398. 14 Octava Controversia Generalis.  Liber Ii.  Controversia Quinta.  Caput XXXI. 15 Michael Davies, Cranmer’s Godly Order, p. 65. 16 Michael Davies, Pope Paul’s New Mass, p. 285. 17 Michael Davies, Pope Paul’s New Mass, p. 320. 18 Michael Davies, Cranmer’s Godly Order, p. 210. 19 Michael Davies, Pope Paul’s New Mass, p. 504. 20 Also discussed in Pope Paul’s New Mass, pp. 102; 504-505. 21 Denzinger, The Sources of Catholic Dogma, B. Herder Book. Co., Thirtieth Edition, 1957, 695. 22 Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, Vol. 1, p. 581; Denzinger 715. 23 A common translation, found in many publications, of the Latin words from the Roman Altar Missal, in De Defectibus, Chap. 5, Part 1. 24 Denzinger 414-415. 25 Michael Davies, Cranmer’s Godly Order, p. 306. 26 The Catechism of the Council of Trent, Tan Books, 1982, p. 227. 27 St. Alphonsus De Liguori, Treatise on The Holy Eucharist, Redemptorist Fathers, 1934, p. 44. 28 Denzinger 2301. 29 A common translation, found in many publications, of the Latin words from the Roman Altar Missal, in De Defectibus, Chap. 5, Part 1. 30 Denzinger 1963. 31 Denzinger 698. 32 St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Allen, TX: Christian Classics, Pt. III, Q. 73, A. 3. 33 Denzinger 1963. 34 The Great Encyclical Letters of Pope Leo XIII, Tan Books, 1995, p. 401. 35 Denzinger 698. 36 Denzinger 1151.
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